Drafts 5 Workspaces

In David Allen's book, "Getting Things Done," his 5 steps to organizing your life are as follows:

We (1) capture what has our attention; (2) clarify what each item means and what to do about it; (3) organize the results, which presents the options we (4) reflect on, which we then choose to (5) engage with.

Since version 3, Drafts has been a primary workspace for steps 1-3. It has been a tried and true capture tool that has powerful tools to organize those captured thoughts after they have been clarified. Drafts's inbox was used to store text with a badge on the app icon declaring how many drafts I needed to process. I would always try to get that number down to 0 every day. Nothing stayed in Drafts or was worked on extensively there. It was where text started, but never where it was completed.

With last month's release of Drafts 5, I have added steps 4 and 5 of Allen's system to Drafts's workload.

The two new features of version 5 that have added the most utility for me are tags and workspaces. While tags are self explanatory, workspaces are essentially saved searches allowing you to filter drafts by tags and search terms. This lets you see the drafts you need only when you need to see them.

Workspaces, along with Drafts 5's new, even more powerful scripting capabilities have allowed me to organize drafts, focus on only what I'm interested in focusing on at that moment, and still easily get the text out of Drafts for final publishing or usage.

Since workspaces are a new concept, I thought I would share what I have created so far:

  • Process
  • Micro Posts
  • The Class Nerd
  • Newsletter
  • Scripts
 My Drafts Workspaces

My Drafts Workspaces


My first workspace, Process, filters all untagged drafts. It is My first workspace, Process, filters all untagged drafts. It isessentially my Drafts 4 style inbox. Whether it's an idea for a blog post, a task for Things, an email I need to send to a parents, or anything else, this workspace shouldn't have drafts in it for very long.

I also have Drafts's badge settings correlate with this workspace with another new feature of Drafts 5. You can select what tags (if any) are included in the app's badge, and I currently have this set to "untagged." This helps me to remember to come back to this workspace and process my drafts.

Micro Posts and The Class Nerd are for all things blogging. Unfinished drafts or ideas stay in the inbox, but tagged so they don't show up as needing to be processed. If I have time to write, I sit down and open one of these workspaces, pick an idea, and start working.

Next, Newsletter is where I create my weekly newsletter for the parents of my students. I collect topics for the next newsletter throughout the week, then run a script to combine these individual drafts into one big newsletter every Monday, and finally convert the markdown to rich text and send the email to parents.

Finally, Scripts is where I work on my script actions for Drafts itself. Drafts is a great text editor for JavaScript, so I can write my scripts in it, then start using them. Any ideas I have for automation or unfinished scripts go in here.

The way I notate that blog posts, newsletters, or scripts are finished or posted is I simply archive the draft. They still maintain their tags, and I can view them in the archives of that workspace, but don't have to apply any more tags or anything different to them.

This has become a really convenient way to organize my work, and I'll hopefully be incorporating more down the road. Actually having organization is allowing me to use Drafts as my daily driver for all things text related instead of having separate apps for separate purposes.

Drafts 5 is available on the App Store as a free download with a $1.99 a month or $19.99 a year subscription to unlock pro features like workspaces.

Automation Orchard

If you're interested in learning more about automation and how to use technology to be more efficient, Rosemary Orchard has just launched Automation Orchard. While Automation Orchard does have a blog of its own, it is also an aggregation of links to posts around the internet about automation on Apple Technology.

This is a great idea, and I instantly subscribed to the site. I recommend you do the same.

Things Check In

Things helps me do my job while not making my job my life.

I wrote those words in December after just having switched to using Things 3 as my task manager from Todoist. It was also right before my school's winter break, so I hadn’t fully put Things through the ringer of a lot of school work. So, 4 months later, I wanted to do a check-in on how Things is treating me.

First, let me say how much I have loved using Things. It's easily the best task manager I've tried for how my brain works. While I've been tempted to sign up for the beta of Omnifocus 3, every time I look at it, I realize it would be a step in the wrong direction for my productivity. Things meets my needs well, and the new shiny isn't going to

What I initially loved about Things still holds true. I love its design. I love the Today View and how it integrates with my calendar. I love how tasks marked for today simply roll over to the next day and don't turn red and make you panic if you don't complete them. Things helps me stay on top of everything I'm managing as a teacher without making me stressed.

I had some people ask me when I first started using Things how I had it set up. I was still in the process of figuring that out at the time, but after a few months I've settled into a workflow that I like, so I thought I would share that.


Things 3 has different levels of structure for your tasks. There are areas which can hold projects which can hold headings which can hold tasks. Almost all of these can also have tags as well.

I have 4 different areas in Things: Work, Personal, Worship and Arts (I help serve as a leader in my church's Worship and Arts ministry), and The Class Nerd. Each of those can have projects, and some even have projects that are constantly updated with new tasks as old ones are checked off.

 My Projects List in Things 3

My Projects List in Things 3


For example, in work I have an Admin project that is always active. This will have repeating tasks I need to complete in it as well as headings for grading and planning. Anything outside of Admin will have its own project created.

I only use one tag, "Important." This only gets busted out if I have a lot of tasks that need doing in one day, but some are a higher priority than others. I'll tag those tasks, and then filter my today view to only show those tasks. It can make me feel less stressed on busy days.

Apple Watch and Siri

One of my favorite features of Things 3 is its Siri and Apple Watch integration. Many other task managers only allow you to add tasks via Siri on the phone, but Things 3 allows you to do so on the watch as well. If I remember something I need to do today, I raise my wrist and say, "Hey Siri, in Things, remind me to do such and such today." Done. This also works great on my HomePod.

The Apple Watch app is also really nice. I leave the complication on most of my watch faces, and will often check something off my list quickly after completing it.


The thing I missed most when I started using Things was the ability to easily send tasks from other apps. With version 3.4, which was released a couple months ago, powerful automation features were added. I can now write scripts to easily send tasks from Drafts 5, create whole projects immediately using Workflow, or open instantly to particular views from Launcher. This has made the usefulness of Things increase dramatically.

For example, I have an Add to Admin script that asks me for a heading and due date, then sends the task to my Admin project for work.

I've also made a Drafts action that will create a new Draft with a blog post idea here, then send a link to that Draft into Things so when I'm looking at the list of posts I want to write, I can open that draft with one tap. I'm hoping to think of more ways to string multiple steps and apps together for the classroom the way this action does.

Even with other task managers being released or new versions being updated regularly, I think it's going to take a lot to get me out of Things 3 at this point. I'm still sold on the simplicity and elegant design that doesn't stress me out, but the power features I need to make sure I don't forget to get anything done that I need to.

If you're looking for ways to keep up with all the tasks you have in the classroom, I highly recommend Things 3 (iPhone, iPad).

Froggipedia and AR Apps

At Apple’s education event last month, the company touted everything you can do on an iPad compared to other devices. They focused heavily on AR and their pencil and featured an app called Froggipedia which allowed students to examine an AR frog and dissect it using the Apple Pencil.

Honestly, while I see value of using iPads in the classroom, this seemed gimmicky. However, my 2nd grade class is currently studying life cycles and adaptations of animals, so I decided to buy the app and test its utility in a real classroom.

For some background, my school is not a 1-to-1 iPad school. We have 2-3 iPads per classroom, none newer than the original iPad Air, some as old as iPad 2. This plays a part in my experience with this app because students were not able to explore by themselves or in small groups. I projected it onto the board using my personal iPad Pro and Apple TV.

I should also note that this app is geared toward older students and more advanced curriculum than what my 2nd graders are working on. However, It did model the frog life cycle from egg to frog which I wanted my students to see.


First though, I wanted to get the reaction of my kids to placing a frog on my desk. As soon as the frog was placed, I started hearing shouts of “Coolest app ever!” and asking what it was called so they could get it at home.

Then I showed them what we actually came to see, the life cycle model.

I don’t show my class a ton of movies, but there are many things we can’t experience in the classroom that need to be seen, so I will occasionally show a quick video. For example, we did a science unit on states of matter, and I wanted them to see that all matter can change state, not just water. So we watched a video of a man melting metals, pouring them into molds, and letting them harden into different shapes.

That’s essentially what this was: a video I controlled. There’s value, but it’s not a game changer.

While I do work very hard to make sure my lessons are engaging for my active 7-8 year olds, engagement can’t be the only factor in teaching. In order to have true rigor, students need to be producers, not just consumers of content. Right now, AR in apps is a novel way to consume. But what will happen when the novelty wears off?

That’s not to say there is no place for AR in education. I can think of a lot of special education and accessibility uses. I just don’t think it will take over the general education classroom.

Time Tracking

One of the primary goals of this website is the help teachers be more efficient in their jobs by utilizing technology.

However, lately, I have felt pretty inefficient, and I wanted to know where my time was going. So I downloaded the app Timelogger and have been tracking how I spend my time at school. I’m hoping if I can see any less important areas where I’m spending too much time, I can find ways cut those back.

I chose Timelogger because it’s native to iOS instead of being a web service like Toggl. Most importantly, it has an Apple Watch app where I can start and stop my timers. I like to leave my phone at my desk most of the day, so having controls on my watch is crucial.

I’ve only been doing this a few weeks, including one where I was out 3 days this past week for spring break. I don’t know that I have enough data yet to make any decisions, but hopefully by the end of the school year I can learn where my systems can be improved and then make the necessary adjustments over the summer.

If you’d like to join me in tracking your time, Timelogger can be downloaded for free on the App Store, but a $4.99 in-app purchase is required to unlock the full feature set.

Apple Education Event Reflection

I’ve spent the day reflecting on Apple’s education event, held this morning in Chicago. While there definitely are things to be excited about (the biggest company in the world holding an event about how they are trying to make my job/education as a whole better is a positive thing), I keep coming back to something I shared on my microblog this morning.

In order for me to be truly excited about what Apple announces today, they’re going to need a direction change in their education approach instead of just next steps on the current path.

I’m hoping since today is the first education event in 6 years, that’s what we see.

Today was a decent sized step down the same path. I wanted to see Apple take some risks and try new things. In the end, that’s not what we got, and that’s disappointing.

That being said, I am genuinely excited about a few things.

As a parent, my kids have one of my old iPad minis they use to watch movies and play games on when we travel. As they get older and need access to devices for homework and school, an iPad in this price range with Apple Pencil support looks amazing.

Also with the pencil, having iWork updated to work with the pencil and drawings is really nice. Microsoft announced support for this in Office back in 2015 when the original 12.9” iPad Pro and Apple Pencil were announced. I can’t believe it’s taken this long to add pencil support to iWork.

The addition of creating books in Pages looks promising as well. While it may not be an iBooks Author replacement, this looks like it could be a great way to share content with students and even a way to for them to create content.

Finally, the update to student iCloud accounts having 200GB of storage for free is fantastic. While we don’t currently use this at my school at all, it definitely helps schools who have large iPad deployments (especially using shared iPads).

Sadly, very little of this will be used in my classroom anytime soon. At a public school with a district going through major budget cuts, adding a fleet of iPads isn’t in the cards. That’s where the problem lies. I don’t blame Apple for the cost. I know Chromebooks often cost about the same. But state testing regulations still make those a more likely choice if we’re ever even given a choice.

So for the schools that can afford it, today was probably a good day. For many though, it was something we can only hope for.

Fraser Speirs on Apple’s Education Event

I started a draft of a blog post about what I hope to see at Tuesday’s Apple education event. Then Fraser Speirs went and said everything I wanted to in 5 tweets. Rather than making you read through my rambling, I am linking to his thread. It’s concise, and dead on.

Thoughts on SaneBox

Back in January, I shared I was beginning SaneBox’s free trial period to help get control over my email. As a teacher, I get urgent information from parents all day right next to needless spam. The signal to noise ratio was not where I needed it to be, and I was spending far too much time managing email instead of preparing lessons for my students.

I had heard about SaneBox for years on tech podcasts, but from the descriptions I heard, it sounded mostly like a server side way to snooze email which can be done in native clients such as Spark and Airmail for far cheaper. However, after I returned to using iOS’s default mail app which doesn’t have these features, something had to be done about email. Important things were being buried and forgotten as I was overwhelmed by junk. I decided to give SaneBox a try, and realized very quickly I would be purchasing a subscription.

The killer feature I had no idea about was the SaneLater folder. SaneBox intelligently sorts email for you and decides what should go immediately into your inbox, and what is less important, and can be read later. From day one, it was doing a great job of sorting for me. However, if something ends up in the wrong place, I simply move the email to the inbox, and all future emails from that sender will appear there.

I thought I would forget to check the SaneLater folder, but every day I get a SaneDigest email from SaneBox which tells me how many emails have been placed in my SaneLater folder that day. Generally, I go check it at that time (which I have set as the end of the school day), and spend 5 minutes dealing with it all. I can even wait a few days to manage my SaneLater folder because nothing in there is ever urgent. Meanwhile, important emails from parents of students or my principal go straight to my inbox.

I do have a few custom folders set up for receipts and TestFlight betas, and I use the SaneBlackHole to unsubscribe from emails as well. SaneLater is just the most useful feature for me.

If you’d like to give SaneBox a try, you can click here, which will give you $5 off your initial subscription.

Todoist Education Pricing

While I have traded my usage of Todoist for Things 3, Todoist is still an excellent task manager, and could very well be the right choice for many people.

This week, Todoist introduced their education pricing for students and teachers. It’s 50% off of the usual annual subscription. If you’re a teacher looking to get your task list under control this new year, this is a great place to start.

You can apply for the education discount here.

New Semester, New Plan

4 years into my teaching career, I’m still struggling to find the best way to lay out my lesson plans that allows me to easily make sure I’m covering what I need to cover, have all my materials together, and don’t forget day to day what I need to do.

Since August alone I’ve tried using Bear to hold all lesson plans, a digital bullet journal in GoodNotes, and a physical bullet journal in my Studio Neat Panobook.

I know part of the issue is my desire to always try new things which can prevent giving systems a chance to actually work. However, I also think part of the reason I can’t stay consistent is nothing strikes the right balance of enough detail that it’s useful without being too fiddly and time consuming.

In the last few weeks of last semester, I started using a few tools that I really like. Now over winter break, I have refined my system that I’ll be using as I head into the next semester this week.

The first app I’m using is Bear. I’ve written about using Bear for lesson planning before, but instead of laying out days and weeks worth of lessons as I was this time last year, I’m using Bear as a wiki of sorts for every state standard I have to teach and how they will be assessed. I use Bear’s tagging system (which is much handier with the recent updates in version 1.4) to group standards by subject, quarter, and unit. I also use note links to link related standards.

 My (Incomplete) Standards Wiki in Bear

My (Incomplete) Standards Wiki in Bear

With Bear’s excellent URL scheme, I can link to specific standards from other parts of my planning workflow if needed.

Bear is great for big picture planning, but for day to day lessons, I’ve decided to just use my calendar. Fantastical (iPhone, iPad) is my main calendar app, and it works great for what I need. I created a separate Lesson Plan calendar in my iCloud account, and add plans to it. As a self contained 2nd grade teacher, I teach multiple subjects a day. I lay out every subject, every day of school with a short description of the lesson in the title. I then have several ways which I will cover later to see my plans for each day.

Rather than go through the tedium of entering each day’s lessons myself, I have a Workflow which does this for me. I have a repeating task in Things 3 (iPhone, iPad) that reminds me every Thursday to run this workflow for the next week. I could just use repeating tasks, but the amount of time it takes to delete these on days where there is no school or a special event adds up to way more than it takes to run this workflow every week.


Once I add lessons to my calendar, I view them a few different ways. The first is with the Siri Face on my Apple Watch. Many days I wear this while at school so I can always see what I’m teaching next, as well as have quick access to my Things today view via the complication and any timers I run during the day automatically show up.


Speaking of Things, one of the major reasons I started using it as my task manager instead of Todoist last month was its fantastic calendar integration. Every morning I look at the Today view which shows me tasks already set for that day. I can then look at what I’m teaching in the calendar section as well to see if there is anything I need to do to prepare the lesson such as print or gather materials. If I do, I add that to my task list to make sure it’s ready for the lesson.


We’ll see how this works for me in the first few weeks of the semester, but I feel like it will be a good balance of organized without hours of work.

The Enneagram, Things, and Ticci

I have been microblogging a lot lately about both the Enneagram (here and here) and transitioning to Things as my task manager (here and here). While I haven’t said as much, the two are actually related.

I wasn’t 100% sure I would actually post this, but after the latest episode of Connected where Federico Viticci talked about why he made the transition from Todoist to Things, there were enough similarities that I needed to share my story as well.

The Enneagram

I had planned on writing a big post on the Enneagram at some point, and that may still come, but I need to explain some things about what it is in order to explain how it has impacted my task manager choice.

In the shortest terms, the Enneagram is a personality typing system. In some ways it’s similar to Myers-Briggs or Disc, or other popular personality test. In a lot of ways though, it’s different.

The Enneagram teaches that there are nine different personality styles in the world, one of which we naturally gravitate toward and adopt in childhood to cope and feel safe. - Ian Morgan Cron, “The Road Back to You”

If you’ve heard a lot of people talking about the Enneagram lately, it’s becoming popular in Christian circles because Ian Cron, a popular Christian author, wrote a book about it. But The Enneagram is not a religion. It’s not tied to one. It’s not something you have to believe or follow. It’s a tool to help you understand yourself, the good and bad. That’s it.

As I’ve studied the Enneagram over the last 6 months or so, I’ve determined I gravitate toward type 3 which is often called “The Performer” or “The Achiever.” Like all 3s, at some point in my life I began to believe that love was based more on what you did than who you are. I will transform myself (or perform) based on whatever situation I’m in to try to win people over and make them think I’m successful. I’m obsessed with productivity and efficiency because the more I do, the more value I have. This isn’t all bad. If you need someone to get a job done, find a 3. But the underlying motivation for me is often unhealthy.

So I’m slowly trying to let myself be at times. Let myself do nothing. Let myself stop always being busy. Being ok with not everything I do being a success.

This is where the transition of task managers has come in.

Todoist to Things

I started using Todoist about a year ago as my primary task manager. We got an Amazon Echo Dot in our kitchen, and I wanted to try working with a task manager that I could easily add tasks to using Alexa (it turns out I never did this anyway). Todoist stuck though.

One of the stickiest aspects of Todoist for me was Karma. Todoist even quoted me on their blog talking about how much I loved Karma. Every day I would work my tail off to reach 0 tasks in my Todoist Today view or continue my streak. When I didn’t make that happen, I would get stressed out. Anxious even. I started hating even opening Todoist because I felt like I couldn’t be good enough at my job to get everything done that I needed to. \ I tried turning off Karma, but it was so deeply connected with using Todoist in my brain I knew I probably needed to get out.

I’m at almost 2 weeks of using Things, and the way Ticci described it in this week’s Connected has been my experience as well. I like that there’s no karma. I like that if I don’t complete a task on a certain day, it just remains on my task list for the next. I like that there’s no congratulations from the app for getting through all of my to-dos for the day.

Things helps me do my job while not making my job my life.

There are definitely things about Todoist that I miss, but after 2 weeks, I’m really happy I made this transition. I hope it leads to more balance, and less stress in the long run. Ticci trying out Things for the same reasons was further confirmation for me that I’m on the right track.

You can pick up Things for iPhone for $9.99 and for iPad for $19.99.

MindNode 5

I don’t know exactly how I found MindNode, but I’ve been using it for at least 5 years as the primary place I get ideas out of my brain to organize and write. I used it in grad school, I’ve laid out semesters worth of lessons, and most blog posts (including this one) begin in MindNode.

Version 5 of MindNode for iOS releases today, and it is a terrific update.

MindNode 5 brings iPhone X support, iOS 11 Files support, and Drag and Drop to the app. These are needed/welcome changes, but not the most exciting features of the update.

It also features an all new design that fits in really well on iOS 11 and the iPhone X especially. Menus are now located in a card that can be resized by the user and feature more options for customizing the appearance of your mind map. Also, if the background of the mind map is black, MindNode will convert the menus to a dark mode.

 MindNode 4 vs MindNode 5

MindNode 4 vs MindNode 5

These customizations can be saved as custom themes that can be reused. I’ve made my own dark theme I really enjoy.

Perhaps my favorite new feature is an option to have “orthogonal branches.” Basically, lines in your map can have 90 degree angles instead of just being curved. I think this looks really nice, and I wish there was an option to have this be the default. Branches can also be placed in a top down orientation which I use with my students for tree maps.

This is a great new version of one of my favorite apps. It’s free to try with an in-app purchase of $14.99 to unlock the full version. If you’re an owner of MindNode 4, the new version is $9.99.

280 on Twitter vs Micro.blog

Earlier today, I posted the following on my microblog and twitter:

It’s funny how much I’ve enjoyed 280 characters on Micro.blog, but how much I hate it on Twitter.

I’ve gotten a lot of people agreeing with me, but not for the same reasons I have. While I don’t want to add to the people complaining about Twitter’s 280 character change, I’ve had enough interactions with people on the subject that I want my thoughts in one place.

Here are my 2 main problems with 280 characters on Twitter vs Micro.blog:

  1. I’ve been on Twitter for 9 years. It has always been 140 characters. It’s jarring to scroll my feed and it suddenly look so different. Micro.blog has always been 280 characters and truncated my posts longer than 140 behind a link when cross-posting to Twitter.
  2. People are still doing tweet threads, but they’re 280 character tweet threads. It’s even more obnoxious. With Micro.blog, when you go over 280, it becomes a real blog post and just has a link. This makes so much more sense.

Yes, there is the ridiculousness of what people say on twitter (including taking 280 characters to tweet about 280 characters), but these 2 are the biggest factors for me.

I wonder how much longer I’ll use Twitter beyond cross-posting from Micro.blog. Returning to more RSS usage instead of Twitter seems more and more appealing every day.

6s Plus to X

Like almost everyone in the Apple nerdosphere, I cannot wait until my iPhone X arrives tomorrow. It’s unfortunate that UPS usually doesn’t come to my house until between 6:30 and 7pm, but I will try to wait patiently.

As I’ve spent some time reading reviews this week and trying to learn more about how the X will work, I’ve realized this is a really big update for me since I skipped the iPhone 7 generation and am upgrading from a 6S Plus.

Haptic feedback and the zoom/portrait mode are things I’ve realized I’ll be getting along with FaceID, the OLED display, and Animoji. Not to mention that zoom/portrait mode have the new, better camera and Portrait Lighting.

This phone isn’t just the new sexy. It’s a major feature update for me. Just over 24 hours now. Bring it on.

Ulysses 12

Today the team over at The Soulmen have released Ulysses 12 for iOS. Ulysses has been my text editor for around 2.5 years including my final master’s research, and I immediately subscribed when they switched their pricing model this year. I didn’t know I could love this app much more, but version 12 takes it to a whole new level.

I’ve been on the beta for a bit, and there are 2 key features that have truly delighted me: drag and drop and inline image preview.

I use Apple’s Pages a lot in my classroom to make rubrics and tests for students. Recently, I started working on an activity for students in Pages that ended up having a lot more writing in it than I originally anticipated. I regretted not starting in Ulysses using markdown then moving to Pages.

I opened Ulysses in split view, selected the text in Pages, dragged it into Ulysses, and watched with delight as Ulysses converted the rich text to markdown automatically. It felt like magic.

Ulysses 12 also features inline image previews. Prior to version 12, to add an image to a sheet, you had to type (img) and you would see a small placeholder indicating an image. In Ulysses 12 you can simply drop an image into the app from anywhere and you will see a thumbnail of the image in the sheet. This makes it much easier to remember what images you have added and why.

Ulysses will always be one of the first apps I install on a new device, and version 12 makes it that much better. It’s available on the App Store, and you can try it for free for 14 days before you subscribe.

Returning to Apple Mail on iOS

A few months ago, I shared I was looking for a new email client:

Here are the features I need in an email client:

  • Sharing a link to the content of an email to another app (such as Todoist or Workflow).
  • URL scheme for accessing emails (see previous item) and creating emails via Workflow or Drafts.
  • The ability to search an entire exchange directory for a contact (super helpful in a very large school district).
  • UI that helps you see your mail and is easy to navigate.
  • Reliable Functionality

It turns out that with iOS 11’s Drag and Drop feature now being used by many 3rd party apps, Apple Mail now meets all of these requirements.

I can drag a message from Mail into Todoist and a link to the message will be placed in the task. Workflow and Drafts both have email actions thanks to Apple’s native APIs. Mail can search an exchange directory. The UI is nicer to look at than Airmail’s, and it actually works and doesn’t have constant bugs like Airmail did.

Plus, Mail has the added benefit of working more naturally with drag and drop when adding email attachments. With Airmail, half the time when I dropped an attachment into an email, it would never show up.

Is Airmail more powerful? Absolutely. I’ll definitely miss snoozing emails. But I think being able to trust my email client to actually send emails is worth the trade off.

For the foreseeable future, I’m going to stick with Mail. It and Notes are on the list of default iOS apps I’m using every day instead of a 3rd party service. Who says Apple can’t make software?